In the past decade, India has combated poverty through social welfare—guaranteeing jobs (and a daily wage of roughly $60) to poor villagers. But in a country of 1.2 billion people, only 200 million have a driver's license; most go without any ID. That's enabled rampant fraud. Billionaire Nandan Nilekani, cofounder of Indian tech giant Infosys, is now helming a government-backed solution: the world's first robust identity system that can be fully verified online. New IDs have already been issued to 450 million people, which can also be useful anytime an ID is needed, such as for travel.