The Imitation Game
Alan Turing introduces the Turing Test, which challenges a machine’s ability to display intelligent behavior indistinguish-able from a human’s.
The beginning of AI
The Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence popularizes the term.
Cold War concerns
U.S. government agencies like the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) fund AI research at universities such as MIT, hoping for machines that will translate Russian instantly.
“I’m sorry, Dave. I’m afraid I can’t do that.”
2001: A Space Odyssey is released, featuring the autonomous and lethal AI, HAL 9000.
The Winter of AI
With disappointingly small yields from AI investments, governments around the world pull back on funding and research. The winter lasts two decades, with just a few heat waves of progress.
Douglas Lenat sets out to construct an AI that can do common-sense reasoning. He develops it for 30 years before it is used commercially.
IBM’s Deep Blue beats world champion Garry Kasparov in chess.
“The ideal search engine is smart.”
Larry Page discusses directing Google Search toward AI.
Apple introduces Siri after acquiring the technology from Stanford Research Institute the year before.
A Google neural network trains itself to recognize cats and humans by viewing millions of images from YouTube, detecting cats with 74.8% accuracy and faces with 81.7%.
Stephen Hawking says, “The development of full artificial intelligence could spell the end of the human race.”
AI for everyone
Google releases TensorFlow, an open-source platform for machine learning.
Sundar Pichai announces that Google is shifting from a “mobile-first world to an AI-first world.”
Amid record funding for AI startups, Google is criticized for selling AI to the Pentagon, and Amazon faces scrutiny for how police departments use its facial-recognition AI.
“The writing is on the wall.”
The head of Google’s quantum team presents its growth rate, which suggests that quantum supremacy is nigh.
A version of this article appeared in the October 2019 issue of Fast Company magazine.