This is the time of year when we focus on giving thanks, with many of us sharing our gratitude with friends and family. But when is the last time you thanked your employees? Coworkers? Or boss? If you haven’t recognized the members of your work team lately, you need to repair the oversight before your Thanksgiving Day leftovers are history.
Gratitude is absolutely vital in the workplace, says UC Davis psychology professor Robert Emmons, author of The Little Book of Gratitude: Creating a Life of Happiness and Wellbing by Giving Thanks, and a leading researcher on the subject. "Most of our waking hours are spent on the job, and gratitude, in all its forms, is a basic human requirement," he says. "So when you put these factors together, it is essential to both give and receive thanks at work."
Gratitude has been the subject of numerous studies, and the findings could be beneficial to your workplace:
Lack of gratitude is a major factor driving job dissatisfaction, turnover, absenteeism, and often, burnout, says Emmons. "In many organizations the workplace culture is toxic," he says. "Symptoms of this are exploitation, complaint, entitlement, gossip, negativity."
Expressing thanks is a remedy against these symptoms, says Emmons. "Grateful individuals live in a way that leads to the kind of workplace environment that human beings long for," he says.
Gratitude also reduces aggression, according to a study by the University of Kentucky. Participants who practiced gratitude were more sensitive toward others and less likely to seek revenge or retaliation when given negative feedback.
Gratitude takes people outside of themselves and to a place that is part of a larger, more intricate network of sustaining relationships, says Emmons, relationships that are mutually reciprocal. "In this sense, it, like other social emotions, functions to help regulate relationships, solidifying and strengthening them," he says.
Gratitude also leads to reciprocity. "It is not only a response to kindnesses received, but it is also a motivator of future benevolent actions on the part of the recipient," says Emmons. "Serving these functions, gratitude enhances our own well-being in that we are built for relationships," he points out. "Gratitude is the high-octane fuel that, without which, we’d be in relational ruin."
Researchers from the London School of Economics found that financial incentives can backfire when it comes to motivating employees. An analysis of 51 separate experiments found overwhelming evidence that "incentives may reduce an employee's natural inclination to complete a task and derive pleasure from doing so."
Appreciation is a much better motivator. A study by Glassdoor found that 80% of employees would be willing to work harder for an appreciative boss, and 70% said they’d feel better about themselves and their efforts if their boss thanked them more regularly.
A study done at the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania underscores this point. Researchers divided participants into two groups, and asked them to make fundraising calls to solicit alumni donations. One group followed the traditional method of making calls while another group was given a speech by the director of annual giving, who expressed gratitude for their efforts. The group who received the pep talk made 50% more fundraising calls than those who did not.
There is no limit to the way in which gratitude is expressed, says Emmons. "We are hungry for genuine expressions of gratitude," he says. "Everyone wants to feel appreciated, valued, recognized."
Employee recognition programs are a common way gratitude is demonstrated in workplaces, but little micro-expressions of gratitude are easier and can be delivered more frequently. "Just saying ‘thank you,’ acknowledging a kindness, or engaging in a helpful act are all ways of expressing gratitude," says Emmons.
Particularly important is sincerity, adds Emmons. "With something like gratitude in the workplace, we know that it works, but we also know you have to keep gratitude authentic," he says. "If, for instance, a leader tries to offer gratitude for purely cynical or instrumental reasons, it's unlikely to work.
"Gratitude is the ultimate performance-enhancing substance at work," says Emmons. "Gratitude heals, energizes, and transforms lives in a myriad of ways consistent with the notion that virtue is both its own reward and produces other rewards."