What if you could be recognized by the way your eyes moved?
An Israeli company believes that tracking the unique signatures in the movement of your eyeballs could be
the most foolproof biometric system ever. What’s more, its setup could be used as a lie detector, or a drug and alcohol test.
In ID-U Biometrics’ system, the user has to watch a moving object
onscreen, while the camera observes the motion of their eyes.
Since the way our eyes move is based on a combination of factors –such as anatomy, physiology, behavioral characteristics, eye structure–it’s a signature that simply can’t be duplicated or forged,
according to its developers.
Dr. Daphna Palti-Wasserman, CEO of ID-U Biometrics, says she designed the
system by drawing up a wish list for the ultimate identification
“We explored the possible human signals and mechanisms that could
deliver our dream biometrics,” she told Fast Company. “It brought us to
the visual system and to the dynamic approach.”
This approach differs radically from eye-related biometrics we’ve written about previously, such as iris scanning. Iris
scanning systems rely on matching the image of your iris structure with a
stored pattern of your iris.
In contrast, the pattern the ID-U technology is based on consists of
dynamic movements made by your eyes as they track a target, something that cannot
be controlled or learned. “Most of the eye movement components are involuntary, and we are not
aware of them at all,” says Palti-Wasserman.
The system requires only a screen,
a camera and the ID-U software to obtain the identification signature. It
can authenticate the user in as little as four to fifteen seconds and
has a two percent error rate. Since it requires no specialized hardware,
it can be easily deployed across a variety of platforms from homeland
security applications to ATM transactions. It could one day replace conventional
passwords in smartphones and PCs.
The system still has its skeptics. “The idea
is novel, but untested,” says Dr Barrett Katz, Professor of Ophthalmology,
Neurology & Neurosurgery, Albert Einstein College of Medicine. “I know of
nothing in the literature that delineates uniqueness to eye tracking
patterns. The eye movements would be re-fixation saccades [extremely fast, ballistic eye
and could easily be suppressed.”
Palti-Wasserman believes that we do
not control our saccades–and says she has three years of tests to prove it.
Professor Moshe Gur, Associate Professor of Biomedical Engineering at
Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, who conducted an independent
study of the system, agrees. “Don’t we have typical running or dancing
styles?” he asks. “Executing eye movements is a complex task involving many
muscles and millions of neurons. It is no wonder that individuals will
have different patterns of movements.”
Another controversial feature of the technology: it can tell when you’re stressed, tired, drugged or drunk, since these factors affect your eye movements.
Palti-Wasserman says she spent years selecting ‘good’ features from
thousands of features that they extracted from the eye tracking signal
to locate those were not affected by fatigue, migraine, stress, or alcohol.
However users needn’t worry at any point about whether their ATM’s will
one day detect how many beers they’ve had. While the core technology will be the same, different stimuli and
data analysis methodologies are used for detecting drunkenness or other
features. So when the system is developed further, each will be a
While the promise of the technology is exciting–it was the winner of
the European Regional Finals of the best security start-up of the Global
2010–the next step is more independent analysis and demonstrations for those skeptical experts.
“Their hypothesis has yet to be
tested,” says Katz. “Eye movements and tracking patterns
of man can be measured–they have been, for years–but what this
technology offers in terms of incremental change or disruption is yet to be demonstrated.”