Getting Started With Online Marketing – Web Analytics – Part II

Web analytics can be complicated – but you can get started quickly. This is what you need know.


Back to web analytics…I am picking up where I left off two
weeks ago.  First, a quick reminder about
the five steps of performing web analytics – which are as follows:

  1. Define
    goals for what you want you web site to do (easier said than done)
  2. Define
    metrics for measuring these goals
  3. Collect
    data to understand the current situation
  4. Analyze
    the data
  5. Make
    changes and go back to Step 3 (Collect Data)

In a previous post, I covered the first two steps; in this
post, I will address the last three steps, collecting and analyzing data, as
well as making changes to improve performance:

Step 3– Collecting Data


There are several important types of data that need to be
kept.  The simplest form is information
collected on a “registration page” on your website, where visitors fill in
their name and contact information prior to downloading materials from the
site.  This information is valuable
because folks who spend the time and effort to truthfully fill out your form expect
to be contacted. Therefore, the likelihood of these being real leads is quite
high. Alas, few people will probably fill out the page and you will have to
work a little harder to get the information.

The next type of data to collect is the type of people who
visited your site and statistics about their behavior. At the simplest level,
use tools like Google Analytics that automatically collect this information and
even trend it over time. After you have installed GA on your site, it will automatically
start to collect data. You will be able to view statistics and trends on a
monthly, weekly, or daily…even hourly basis. 
This is important because often, “absolute” values related to visitor
behavior are far less important than understanding behavior trends.  I will provide some examples in the next

When you progress to the next stage of website analytics,
you may want to employ Javascript tagging on your site, but I suggest you first
plumb the information you get without much exertion via the free tools. You
will be amazed at how much you can learn about your site, without much effort.


Step 4- Analyzing Data

I will use Google Analytics (GA) to demonstrate how to
analyze website data quickly and easily.  When you log into Google Analytics, you will
see a page like the one shown below. This is page is called the “dashboard” and
from here you will be able to locate almost everything you want to know (at
this stage).  This is a top-level view;
you can get more granular information on any topic, by clicking on the page’s hyperlinks.

 At the top of the page, you will see a graph of the number
of visits to your website over time. Below this, you will see some of the
important values, including “number of visits”, “pages/visit”, “bounce rate”, “page
views”, “average time on site”, and “new visits”. I covered some of these
values in a previous post. To keep it simple, I will focus on just a few of the
most important values, explain what they mean, and then how to use the values
to improve your business performance.  


Number of visits – this is
the number of people who visited your site during the duration of the sampling
interval; typically a month.. If you just launched a new site, this number is
particularly important; if your site has been up for awhile, it is usually more
important to see whether this number is trending up or down. From a marketer’s
perspective, you will eventually want to trace these numbers to specific
marketing activities to see what is working and what is not. I will try to
expound on this in an upcoming post.

Bounce rate – how many
people left your site after viewing the first page – a high bounce rate usually
means one of two things – the landing page is not effective or that there is a
mismatch between the message on the landing page and the link that sent the
person to your site. In either case, a high bounce rate means that you need to
take action. A 20% bounce rate is pretty good; a 70% rate means you have
trouble. We will look at this in Step 5.

Pages/visit” and “Average
time on site
” – the “avg. number of pages” and the “average time a visitor
spent on your site” before moving on, respectively  The absolute values here will depend on the
type of site you have. A blog site will usually have small values. An ecommerce
site should have larger values. For many folks, trends here are often more
important than the absolute numbers.


For any sort of business analysis, it is extremely important
to track where visitors are coming from. 
The two top things you will want to analyze; one is how people
reached your site
and the second is to figure out who the visitors are.  Let’s look at each one in turn.

How Visitors Reached Your Site – At the bottom left
of the dashboard figure, you will see a section titled, “Traffic Sources
Overview.” The pie chart here breaks down how visitors reached your site; the
possibilities are as follows:

Search engines like Google
or Yahoo (this includes both paid ads and “organic” searches). There is a lot
more to analyzing search traffic, particularly because you pay for some of it.
Therefore, doing it right will bring you business and save money, but this will
have to wait for a future post.


Referring sites – these are
sites that link to yours, like partner or affiliate sites.

Directly –number of visitors
who keyed in your company’s URL in the browser address field.

Other – the visitor was
directed to your site via another channel. Examples of “other” include clicking
on a link in an email message or clicking on a banner ad. You will need to do
some additional work to be able to leverage this field for marketing purposes, and
this is beyond the scope of this introduction. Good information is available on
the Google
site, under the code section.



Who Are Your Visitors? – There are a number of things
you can learn about which people visited your site. Two things that I find
particularly useful are geographical distribution and the visitor’s home
Internet domain. The latter is particularly valuable for business to business
websites.  Here’s how you view these:

Geographical distribution
there are several ways to view this; the easiest way is to drill down on the
“Map Overlay” section of the dashboard, as shown in the figure above.  This will give you the numbers of visitors
from different locations.


Visitor Domain – click on
the “Visits” hyperlink in the dashboard, then on “Network Properties” and then
on “Network Location.” On this page, you will see a list of IP domains from
which people visited your site.  There
will usually be a large number if Internet Service Provider (ISP) names like
Verizon, etc., which means that people used this ISP to reach your site. There
isn’t much you can do with this information, easily. However, there might be a
large number of company domains as well. This means that somebody from that
company visited your website. When you correlate this information with your email
lists, completed web site forms, sales meeting summaries, telephone call logs,
etc. you can usually piece together who these people are and what they did on
your site. This is extremely valuable information for companies selling to

There is a lot more you can do to analyze web site traffic,
but this is a good start.



Step 5– Making Changes to Improve Performance

OK, now that you have a basic understanding about what you
can learn about your website traffic, what can you do to better achieve your
business goals?  Two things you can immediately
change are your website content and marketing programs. Again, there is a whole
science behind how best to do this, but here are some quick and easy

If you see a high bounce rate, or low “Pages/visit” and “Average
time on site” values, then you need to make some changes, pronto.  What this means is that people didn’t find
what they were looking for on your site. It is usually due to one of the
following reasons:


Your Ad keywords are not
. Change your keywords to be more in line with what your
company/service does. It doesn’t make sense to drive people to your site (and
pay for it!), if they aren’t really interested in your company’s product or

Your messages are not relevant.
If you get lots of click-throughs from your marketing campaigns (e.g.
email, banner ads, etc.), your message may be compelling, but your site doesn’t
deliver. Locate the campaigns that are working, by analyzing the “Traffic
Source” pie chart on the dashboard.

The keywords are relevant, but
your site does not capture the audience
. Change the website landing page
content to provide more relevant and compelling information.



If you see downward trend on the “number of visitors”, or in
the “amount of time spent on the site”, look at the marketing programs you ran
during the sampling interval (i.e. the last month) and compare them to the
programs you ran during the previous interval. Did your messaging change? Did
you use different email lists? Were there any significant announcements in the
market?  All of these things can have an
impact on your web site traffic. By analyzing the correlation of visitor
traffic to marketing programs, you will uncover a treasure trove of actionable

If you see a sudden spike in website traffic that can’t be
traced to marketing activities, check for articles, blog posts, or other media
mentions that might have driven the traffic. 
Then cultivate that channel to continue to drive traffic to the site.  You should be monitoring these media sources
at all times.




About the author

A technology strategist for an enterprise software company in the collaboration and social business space. I am particularly interested in studying how people, organizations, and technology interact, with a focus on why particular technologies are successfully adopted while others fail in their mission. In my 'spare' time, I am pursuing an advanced degree in STS (Science, Technology, and Society), focusing on how social collaboration tools impact our perceptions of being overloaded by information. I am an international scholar for the Society for the History of Technology.