04_Andrew Mackay

Strike Joint Resolutions

How do you reintroduce law and order to a society brutalized by war? Andrew Mackay, a 20-year veteran of the British military, ran a team that applied business principles to the promotion of security and justice.


Andrew Mackay
Head of the Advisory Unit on Security,
United Nations Mission in Kosovo
Pristina, Kosovo

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What specific issue are you trying to address?
If Kosovar society is to transform itself into a stable democracy, then promoting, establishing and delivering effective law and order will be the primary means by which it manages this transfer. In managing any post-conflict situation there are competing and varied tasks that require urgent attention and resources. But without the framework of an effective police force and an independent and fair judiciary–and this counts for any country–the additional institutions necessary to establish a stable democracy are unlikely to flourish. For Kosovo, two years away from a short but brutal war which, in turn, was proceeded by decades of neglect, the chances of establishing a stable democracy can, at first sight, seem some way off. Put simply, the investment of billions of dollars will have come to naught unless effective and fair law and order is delivered in Kosovo.

What business principle applied?
A confession. The team that addressed the fundamental issues referred to above were collectively, a British Army Officer (male), a Danish lawyer (female), a British United Nations employee (male) and an American Lawyer (female). Collective age was about 130 years. In applying business principles, the leader–the British Officer–applied many of the principles that business executives and armed forces personnel grapple with daily. How do you lead? What is the vision? How are we measuring our performance? What are our objectives? Who do we have to convince further? Hard sell or soft sell? Whose with us and who isn’t–and if you are not, why not, and how do we convince you?

How did you put it into practice?
Delivering law and order in Kosovo requires three fundamental components. They are the Police Force (both the UN and Kosovo police force), the justice department (both the UN and Kosovars) and the NATO military force (KFOR) who number 45,000 and come from over 40 different nations. We formed a small team that sought to bring these three elements together in order to make them work more effectively, identify the key resources needed, and determine which links in the law and order chain where either missing (quite a few), weak and in need of strengthening.


How have you seen results?
We now have a proper witness protection program, we have laws that protect the weak and lock up criminals. We have a completely re-organized justice department. Huge in roads have been made in how we will turn intelligence (including military intelligence) into evidence that can appear in a court. We have deployed international judges and prosecutors into Kosovo that will be an example for years to come in post conflict situations. We have increased and resourced prison capacity (it is needed!) three fold over a one year period.

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