Why Vaccine Makers Can’t Keep Up with the H1N1 Virus

There isn’t enough H1N1 vaccine to go around, which is why President Barack Obama declared the outbreak a national emergency over the weekend. Why can’t we produce H1N1 vaccines fast enough? Because of chicken eggs.

Why Vaccine Makers Can’t Keep Up with the H1N1 Virus

The CDC just can’t seem to get its predictions right when it comes to H1N1 vaccine delivery. In July,
the organization said 120 million doses would be available to Americans by
mid-October. In August, they reduced the estimate to 45 million
doses. Now in mid-October it’s down again to between 28 and 30 million, with some states ordering 10 times the amount actually distributed. Meanwhile, the disease has spread through 46 states and claimed 5,000 lives globally, according to the World Health Organization. And over the weekend, President Barack Obama declared the H1N1 outbreak a national emergency. The move was said to be largely administrative, allowing hospitals to transfer patients to alternate or satellite locations in the event of a sudden surge of victims.


Why are there delays at the most critical juncture of an outbreak that doctors have watched germinate for months? Because the traditional
egg-based methods that vaccine manufacturers have relied on for the past 50 years
can’t keep up a pandemic like
swine flu, experts say. But there is a faster way.

While egg-based vaccine production may work fine for
seasonal flu, the process, which requires one chicken egg roughly one chicken egg per dose, can produce
unpredictable yields and is difficult to scale up on short notice (the WHO
had originally hoped for 4.9 billion doses of the vaccine to be available by spring). There
are alternatives to the egg-based approach. As we discussed in an August post,
companies, such as Connecticut-based Protein Sciences, have been working on
molecular genetics techniques to produce vaccines in cells, which say they are both faster and more reliable than egg-based

The U.S. government
has invested billions of dollars in these new technologies over the past few years, but, although a few
cell-based vaccines have been approved in Europe,
none have been approved by the FDA. Still, some researchers say wide-scale adoption of cell-based vaccines is imminent and that by the next
pandemic flu, egg-based vaccines could be a
thing of the past. Of course, that’s what people were saying back in 2005, too.

[Image via themissiah on Flickr Creative Commons]