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  • Winning FDA approval for a new drug or medical treatment requires extensive—and expensive—human trials for safety and effectiveness. Costs vary widely, depending largely on the conditions being treated and the number of subjects required. Roughly 50 stem-cell cardiac therapies are currently in trials in the United States. Among them are these two, both designed for "no hope" populations, meaning that relatively few participants are required—perhaps 100 to 300.

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