Is the music playing in your headphones right now making you better at your job? #worksmarter via @FastCompany
Click here to preview the new Fast Company

Want to try out the new

If you’d like to return to the previous design, click the yellow button on the lower left corner.

How Music Affects Your Productivity

You might be rocking headphones while you read this—but does what's playing make you better at your job?

Music has a way of expressing that which cannot be put into words.

It is for this reason (and many more) that music is regarded as one of the triumphs of human creativity—but does music itself help one to create?

This is an important question to examine, because music has increasingly become apart of the modern-day work session.

The soldiers of yore may have faced insurmountable odds to the sound of trumpets, but we desk jockeys are typically left to fend off our piling inboxes with nothing more than iTunes.

With so much of our work now being done at computers, music has become an important way to "optimize the boring."

Though it may be a fine way to avoid habituation, the question remains: does music actually make you more productive? More focused? More creative? Or is all that a placebo?

People like me need to know. For nearly all of my work sessions, I have music playing in the background. I once wrote 10,529 words on customer loyalty (how exciting) listening to nothing other than the SimCity 2000 soundtrack—and yes, more on that later.

Am I actively sabotaging myself, or is music spurring me to do better work?

Let’s take a look at the research.

Music may help make repetitive tasks easier

When evaluating music’s effectiveness in increasing productive output, one element to consider how "immersive" the task at hand is.

This refers to the variability and creative demand of the task—writing a brand new essay from scratch is synthesis work that demands a lot of creativity; answering your emails is mundane work that does not.

When the task is clearly defined and is repetitive in nature, the research seems to suggest that music is definitely useful.

A series of experiments has investigated the relationship between the playing of background music during the performance of repetitive work and efficiency in performing such a task. The results give strong support to the contention that economic benefits can accure from the use of music in industry.

More modern studies would argue that it perhaps isn’t the background noise of the music itself, but rather the improved mood that your favorite music creates that is the source of this bump in productivity.

Music with a dissonant tone was found to have no impact to productivity, while music in the major mode had different results: "Subjects hearing BGM (background music) achieved greater productivity when BGM was in the major mode."

The effects music can have in relation to repetitive tasks were further explored in this study, which showcased how assembly line workers displayed signs of increased happiness and efficiency while listening to music.

In a noisy workplace, music may be an escape

Despite the somewhat variable effects of music on the individual, one thing is definitely clear: A noisy workplace can end up halting productivity in its tracks.

Perhaps a pair of headphones may not be as distracting as some bosses tend to think:

Dr. Lesiuk’s research focuses on how music affects workplace performance. In one study involving information technology specialists, she found that those who listened to music completed their tasks more quickly and came up with better ideas than those who didn’t, because the music improved their mood.

Again we see that mood is the main argument made.

The idea that headphones might beat out the constant yapping of your office co-workers has caused somewhat of a debate due to the rising popularity of open offices.

While the open space may encourage more collaboration, the chatter can be too much for some people to handle—I know that when I’ve worked in an open workspace, I couldn’t focus on writing without my headphones.

Music seems to interfere with learning

When it comes to absorbing and retaining new information, distraction in any form is a huge no-no.

According to this research, music is no exception. Participants had a much more difficult time recalling a complex task when they had listened to music.

Music demands too much of your attention—even when the sounds are subtle—to be listened to when you are trying to learn or analyze new information.

Imagine trying to "read above your level," or reading material that is outside your expertise, while being pulled away by the sound of music. It makes an already difficult task nearly impossible.

Ambient noise may be the creative sweet spot

For those that do benefit in listening to music during creative sessions, an "ambient" presence of music appears to work best.

Researchers have shown that a moderate noise level can really get creative juices flowing, but that too much noise has the opposite effect.

This would imply that music with especially low-lows or especially high-highs should be avoided.

Deep basses and screeching synths might get you energized, but when listening and engaging in deep work, favor a more mellow sound.

Lyrics can be very distracting

For those low-immersion activities I mentioned above, music with lyrics can offer huge benefits. As an example, studies clearly show that listening to music can help us with intense exercise (anyone who’s ever been inside a gym could tell you that!)

But with immersive tasks, lyrics are especially destructive to our focus.

Since listening to words activates the language center of your brain, trying to engage in other language related tasks (like writing) would be akin to trying to hold a conversation while another person talks over you… while also strumming a guitar.

Lyrics might not have the same effect for creative tasks that don’t directly deal with "verbal architecture," such as designing. This study that looked at software developers suggested that music helped their output while working; I would still argue that for any language-based task, you should steer clear.

Familiarity is best for focus

It may be beneficial to listen to music you are familiar with if you need to intensely focus for a project.

The reason being is that new music is surprising; since you don’t know what to expect, you are inclined to listen closely to see what comes next.

With familiar music, you know what lies ahead and thus the sound doesn’t become your primary focus.

While the "journey" of new music is certainly beneficial in other ways, you may want to tread a familiar path if you are using music to help get things done.

Music for Immersive Tasks: What Works?

Obviously "music that you like" should be given preference, but there are certain types of music that, from the research above, might be best suited to make us all more productive during immersive tasks.

I chose to look at this in particular because music for more repetitive tasks tends to be an "anything goes" situation: if Metallica helps you get through your inbox, turn it up until your neighbors complain.

In addition, most people tend to have a fairly wide range of music interests, so coming across or utilizing a certain type of music just for work isn’t out of the question—they needn’t always rely on what’s currently on their iPod.

Below, in order to introduce you, I’ll list the type of music, why it may be useful for you, and I’ll try to include some links on where you can find more.

Classical music (Baroque)

Why it works

Lacking in lyrics and often considered to be the apex of the craft, classical music is a popular choice for getting things done.

One study in particular made it very clear that Baroque-period tunes appear to have a measurable impact on productivity. The study only had 8 radiologists as subjects, however all but one reported that the classical music had a notable improvement on their concentration.

Noting what we’ve discussed above, not all classical music is created equal here—the dramatic twists and turns of "Toccata & Fugue in D minor" might not be as appropriate as the more delicate sounds of "Für Elise."

Where to listen:


Two very long collections below, there are obviously many, many others.

Electronic music

Why it works

In electronic music, "ambient electronica"—and its sub-genres of chillout, downtempo, ambient house, and far too many others—all tend to fit our need for ‘present but unobtrusive.’

This genre also tends to be repetitive, in a good way.

Unlike all of the ups and downs of a symphonic piece, there are quite a few producers out there who aim to create ‘soundscapes’ (anyone remember Gabe from The Office?) that focus on a few melodies that repeat and build on each other.

The song’s focus will help your focus, as the repeating tones are nice to have going in the background.

Where to listen


I grabbed two quick examples from Vanilla and Ambinate.

Video game music

Why it works

Game design actually entails an incredible amount of depth, and great game composers know that the ideal music for certain situations is music that can be played in the background and not distract the player.

Composers for games understand and know how to create music that blends in to the background; don’t let the "gamer" stigma fool you here.

One of the most popular suggestions of all time on Reddit for "music that helps with concentration" was the SimCity soundtrack, which I found surprising.

It actually makes perfect sense, as Maxis specifically designed the music to be enjoyable but subtle enough that it wouldn’t distract you from the myriad of things you needed to do in order to build your city.

You can download the .zip here of all the songs, and I think you’ll see below why this soundtrack and other game music makes for some excellent ambient noise.

Where to listen


I grabbed two quick examples from Skyrim and SimCity 5.

"Everything else"

Why it works

There isn’t really a genre I could list here, given that anything else that may be "low key" could be a good potential playlist for the right people.

If vocals don’t bug you that much during work, give them a go.

Jazz, hip-hop, indie rock, blues, and everything under the sun are really up for grabs here, but remember that "ambient" is the word of the day for a productive session with music playing, at least if you’re engaged in deep work.

Where to listen


I really enjoy oldies for work, they tend to have a softer tone.

No music at all!

If you’re tired of these dang kids and their "newfangled dub steps," fear not—sometimes the sweet sound of silence is the most fitting of all.

If a task is so demanding that your attention might falter due to any music at all, you should focus on creating a very quiet workplace.

For some people, however, total silence is off-putting. Is there any way to have a very mild ambient noise in the background without music?

There are two neat tools you should check out:

SimplyNoise: Playing nothing but a low pitch white noise in the background is amazing for certain productive scenarios, at least for me. I find this can really get me in the zone if there is something outside that is intruding (like construction work).

RainyMood: Work like it’s drizzling outside even when it’s 80 degrees and the sun is shining! This plays a loop of a mild storm, turn on a fireplace video and you can get seriously cozy.

What do you listen to?

This article originally appeared on Sparring Mind and is reprinted with permission.

[Image: Flickr user Matteo Paciotti]

Add New Comment


  • Yomna Nassar

    Good read. Be careful to check some of the referenced research links as they are no longer available.

  • Interesting article. I use bin-aural and isotones music to cancel outside noise without getting distracted.... To elevate my mood, I use classical mantras rendered by greats like Pt. Jasraj... Flute music is another favorite, though I haven't listened to it in a long time...

  • Great article. The most valid point for me is the one about familiarity. I think it's important to listen to music you are familiar with so that you can simply let it play in the background and not have it be at the forefront of your thoughts.

    “Only completely new things cause strong activity in the midbrain area," and that should be one's ideas during work, not music...

  • Casie Lane Millhouse-Singh

    Lovely Article! The research was very delightful and eyeopening but more importantly you gave us to seek out which would work for us.

  • HI! I love having music to drown out the "other" going on around me and to narrow my focus on what is in front of me. It's lulling without putting me to sleep and it cheers me up. Tried ambient music but it was more annoying. Anyway, The results give strong support to the contention that economic benefits can accure from the use of music in industry...wasn't sure what that sentence meant. Accrue was meant to be there perhaps?

  • Very insightful article. I find that certain familiar music helps re-reinforce the writing habit. I use different music for different topics. Thanks for the hard work you obviously put into the research.

  • Kobus Du Toit

    Really insightful article! I am one of those people who needs music to sometimes get started, so this article puts many things in place for me.

    I especially liked your observations about music from the gaming industry. I had to laugh when you mentioned the simcity soundtrack - its magic music for productivity to me! Its ambient, non-obtrusive, lyric-free and generally leaves you in a good mood, which is a killer combination!

    Looking forward to checking out the links you suggested! :D

  • I actually listen to - here it comes - metal when I work and it fires me up, I'm much more productive with music! Great article, as I read the piece I didn't expect to see metal listed in here and I guess I'm kind of an exception... but it definitly works for me :D

  • Sarah Singer-Nourie

    Greg! Great piece! And... There's a lot of research to prove the benefits of listening to particular wordless music 20-70 bpm to not only enhance learning and retention but also recall in test-taking situations. Specifically to get the brain into Alpha state- relaxed, focused concentration. Check out Lozanov's original work, Jensen (, Quantum Teaching (I co-authored that one and there's a bit in there on it). For tracks, check out "Music to Enhance Concentration" by SonicAid.

  • Kathi George Wheeler

    I have noticed music mostly can disrupt my productivity. HOWEVER, I have noticed, if I put on some good old motown, I sing along, crank out work and have one of the most productive, creative days. I think it is all about how the music makes you feel.

  • beautiful reading! from Spirituals on a fields to a loud headphones in openspaces music came a long way to help us to work effectively. with tons of online music now we became slaves of rhythm. there is a personal feed for every single job you do. great times!

  • This is an interesting article.

    Thing is, while interesting, it also has about seven first sentences. Just pick one hook and then get to it, or you're just burying your lede.

  • Theresa Behenna

    As a motivational speaker I'm constantly researching, writing and marketing my business sitting at a computer all day. I've discovered the inspirational process flows easier and is more enjoyable with either background instrumentals playing or unfamiliar soft vocals.

    I agree with Gregory here that music elevates the mood and can change people's behavior....I've seen it in my audiences countless times as I play the piano during my speeches. You can see and feel the energy change when people hear the music regardless of age, culture, professional position or whether it's familiar or not.

    Great blog! Thanks.

  • Anna Sen

    While I love music (maybe that's the problem!), I can't really listen to anything if I'm to successfully focus. Silence allows my brain to give voice to my thinking. Although there is evidence that using music helps one to learn, say, a foreign language more easily. I agree that repetitive work is aided by music.