The Science Of Brainstorming

Our hunt for the eureka moment may be in vain. New research suggests analogies can help your team come up with great new ideas.

Where do great ideas come from, and how can you generate more of them?

You’ve tried all the recommendations, from waking up early to writing by hand.

Maybe your company has even hired a consultant to help employees generate new ideas, all in pursuit of that elusive eureka moment, the light bulb, the bolt of inspiration that leads to the next big thing.

But research continues to show that our hunt for the eureka moment may be in vain. The most recent example comes from Joel Chan and Christian Schunn of the University of Pittsburgh, who sought to understand how "thought A led to thought B that led to breakthrough C."

They analyzed transcripts from the brainstorming sessions of a professional design team tasked with designing a hand-held printer for kids. The transcripts showed that new ideas don't come out of thin air due to massive cognitive leaps.

Instead, creativity is a series of small steps. "Idea A spurs a new but closely related thought, which prompts another incremental step, and the chain of little mental advances sometimes eventually ends with an innovative idea in a group setting," they say. They also found that analogies helped lead from one idea to the next.

An analogy, as Chan explains it, is "when we look at two things in our memory or in the world and we say they’re similar based on some underlying structure they share." He gives the stock example of the similarities between the solar system and an atom. "Even though the two things look very different on the surface, we can see them as similar because of some underlying structure they share."

Analogies come naturally to us. Our brain makes analogous comparisons unconsciously all the time as a way of making sense of the world around us.

"In order to survive, humans rely upon comparing what’s happening to them now with what happened to them in the past," write Douglas Hofstadter and Emmanuel Sander in their book Surfaces and Essences: Analogy as the Fuel and Fire of Thinking.

Says Schunn: "Your head is filled with solutions you’ve seen, and analogies are a way of looking through that past history of solutions to say, 'Well, maybe one of those could work here.'"

This was indeed true for the designers. In their brainstorming sessions, new analogies surfaced every five minutes. Here's one example the team used, presumably while trying to figure out how the printer might open and close:

You can actually see the idea evolving here with the help of analogies: video tape flap > garage door > roller door. This happened throughout the brainstorming sessions; ideas shifted and changed and morphed. Brainstorming didn’t lead directly to a breakthrough innovation, but using the brain's inherent need to draw similarities helped move the ideas along.

As author Scott Berkun writes in The Myths of Innovation, "every amazing creative thing you’ve ever seen, or idea you’ve ever heard can be broken down into smaller ideas that existed before."

Analogies can also help us get out of a mental rut. Schunn says our brains sometimes become fixated on an idea. For example, let's say your boss gives you an assignment and, to help get the ball rolling, she also throws out some of her own ideas or potential solutions. These can get stuck in your brain and prevent you from coming up with any new concepts.

"We have done studies that show individuals get fixated and can get de-fixated by thinking about analogies, thinking about the problem in terms of what other solutions and problems are out there that have those same functional pieces," Schunn says. "Those methods have worked both for novices and for experts."

According to Schunn and Chan, this incremental process could be better for innovation than simply asking someone to come up with great ideas, or waiting for a eureka moment. "If you start a meeting and you say, 'Okay, we’re gonna come up with really good ideas,' that can be a really bad way to start," says Chan. "Innovation can be hampered if everyone tries to fit the mold of the 'eureka breakthrough’ and thereby miss out on really good ideas that can be achieved through less ‘romantic’ means."

[Image: Flickr user Maureen Didde]

Add New Comment

7 Comments

  • Hi Jessica- Great article! Most folks think of creativity as a proverbial bolt of lightning. However, it's not. I like how you break the process down into what it really is: a series of small mental steps.
    Back in in my undergrad days, I was an Art major. I had a great professor who would say, "Amateurs borrow, professionals steal." She was not advocating for ripping off other artists' work. Rather, she was trying to point out that creativity isn't generated out of thin air. Be deliberate in building on observations to seed the creative progression. Thanks, Lori Kajkowski

  • Jennifer Lem

    I like the focus on analogies, thanks for sharing Jessica. I would like to add a few more insights about a succesfull brainstorm; make pairs during the brainstorm, inform the participants about the challenge up front (a week ahead) and do set bounderies in the fase where you choose the ideas. Or read my blogarticle about this: http://www.influate.nl/index.php/brainstormen-werkt-niet/?lang=en ( it is written in English..)

  • Thomas Lefort

    There is definitely a tool to make out of this, a kind of "dictionary of synonims" but one of analogies. If you mention a "roller" the tool, eg a web application, would come up with a tree of analogies you can navigate through (think 3d tree, images, interactions) until you get the perfect match.

  • Great post, Jessica! One way I've heard this described is that insights and creative breakthroughs come when our brains connect weak signals, and our brain can only 'hear' signals above the overall level of mental 'noise' we're experiencing. That's why we have so many Eureka moments in the shower or out on a run - because we're NOT actively thinking about the problem we're trying to solve, and there's a lot more quiet in the brain.

    It makes sense that analogies would help, it's almost like the bridge between weak signals, so if you give your brain the bridge first, it will be easier to make those connections, even if it's a bit 'noisier'.

    The other tip I've heard is to have people in the meeting first write down their ideas. It turns out that we come up with collectively a lot more ideas if we list them on our own first, and then share them with each other afterwards.

  • While I have confidence in the brainstorming process, I've yet to be in a session in which the "no filter" rule is in effect and respected. It's usually been too difficult to get some people to feel comfortable enough to offer "crazy" ideas while keeping others from shooting them down before they've finished describing their thoughts. Just very frustrating experiences.

  • leadguide

    Really Good Stuff! Analogies work extremely well IFF you can bury people in them. We use the analogy of a major Mountaineering expedition from start to finish with the problem being attacked as the Big Mountain and the connected know a and unknowns impacting it being the range of foothills through which the team must move on its climb. We never use the term "brainstorming" but instead constantly push for "thinking diFFFerent". Fast Company ran an excellent description of the analogy-process awhile back: http://www.fastcompany.com/38593/idea-summit Climb on!