Offices For All! Why Open-Office Layouts Are Bad For Employees, Bosses, And Productivity

In part one of our two-part series, Fast Company senior editor Jason Feifer makes a case for giving all workers a little alone time—behind an office door.

Editor's Note: This is one of the most-read leadership articles of 2013. Click here to see the full list.

I had an office. Now I don’t.

I’m not looking for your pity; I want your own righteous indignation. Because you, too, deserve an office. We deserve better. We all deserve offices. But it gets worse: We’ve been told that our small squat in the vast openness of our open-office layouts, with all its crosstalk and lack of privacy, is actually good for us. It boosts productivity. It leads to a happy utopia of shared ideas and mutual goals.

A cubicle of one's own.

These are the words of imperceptive employers and misguided researchers. The open-office movement is like some gigantic experiment in willful delusion. It’s like something dreamed up in Congress. Maybe we can spend less on space, the logic seems to go, and convince employees that it’s helping them. And for a while, the business press (including, let’s be honest, some of the writing in this very publication) took it seriously. "Less space per worker may be inevitable for cost-effectiveness, but it can enhance the working environment, not degrade it," said a particularly infuriating New York Times piece, who quoted only one critic, a person who claimed all this bustle was troubling for introverts.

No. This is a trap. This is saying, "Open-office layouts are great, and if you don’t like them, you must have some problem." Oh, I have a problem: It’s with open-office layouts. And I have a solution, too: Every workspace should contain nothing but offices. Offices for everyone. Offices for the junior associate and the assistant editor, and offices for the vice president and the editor-in-chief. Take those long tables, the ones currently lined with laptops at startups, and give them to an elementary school so children can eat lunch on them. We’ll have to do away with all those adorable communal spaces, but they were always a little demeaning, a little not-quite-Starbucks. We won’t need them now that we all have our own meeting place.

Peace and quiet and privacy and decency and respect for all. We people who spend more waking hours at work than we do at home, we people who worked hard to be where we are, we deserve a few square feet and a door. Call me old fashioned, call me Andy Rooney if you must, but Andy Rooney had an office.

Let us pause to count our grievances.

1. We work slower, and our work is worse

About that office I used to have: My most recent one was here, at Fast Company, before a recent full-floor reorganization. There are few private offices here; most everyone (including me now) works at desks with measly half-walls, barriers of privacy only equipped to shield us from the prying eyes of small dogs. In the past, when I needed to focus, I shut my door. The silence was beautiful. It was calming. It made deadlines easier to meet.

Feifer in his happy place.

Out here? I’ve been interrupted at least a dozen times trying to write this, and I’m only a few paragraphs in. That’s not just my perception: Employees in cubicles receive 29% more interruptions than those in private offices, finds research from the University of California, Irvine. And employees who are interrupted frequently report 9% higher rates of exhaustion.

That’s just speaking of the intentional interruptions, of course. I’m now always surrounded by chatter, which means that, like every other office worker in the country, I have to wear earphones. I’m currently listening to Django Reinhardt on Pandora. His talent is timeless. But while it’s easier to think with Django in my ears, it isn’t nearly as easy as silence was. The music just adds to the clutter in my head. Back when I had an office, I left work with my mind still happy and fresh; I emailed myself ideas while walking home, as some newsy podcast told me even more useful info. Now, at the end of a day of nonstop jazz, I leave work feeling fried. I miss my podcasts, which my brain just doesn’t have room for. I walk to the subway in silence, repairing.

Are you unmoved by this argument? I don’t take offense. This piece would be so much better had I written it in private. Between the words "That’s just speaking..." and now, I’ve been interrupted two more times.

2. Our time is not everyone’s time

Proponents of open offices would say all these interruptions are good: We’re in an office to work together, after all. "It eliminated gatekeepers. You didn’t have to make an appointment to see someone," a former deputy mayor of New York City said about the open-plan Michael Bloomberg imposed. Which sounds nice and all, but hey, what about that "someone" you can now access so easily? Do you think that person might be busy? Might be trying to focus on something, might be on deadline, might have an idea they really need to explore before it vanishes from their minds?

This is the problem with open-office layouts: It assumes that everyone’s time belongs to everyone else. It doesn’t. We are here to work together, sure, but most of the time, we actually work alone. That’s what work is: It is a vacillation between collaboration and solitary exploration. One isn’t useful without the other. When we are working in a group—literally when we sit around a table brainstorming, or when we are having a conversation—we don’t pretend we’re alone. That would just be weird and awkward. So when we’re alone, let’s not pretend we’re in a group.

I’m not advocating for more gatekeepers. Nobody’s giving me a secretary, which is good, because I don’t know where that person would sit. And I hate that by advocating for a few minutes of time to myself, it makes me sound like I don’t enjoy collaboration—as if one must be the opposite of the other. In truth, I love helping others, and I almost never say no when someone asks if I have time. (While writing this paragraph, one colleague drew me away to brainstorm how to describe spreadable chocolate without using the word "spread" too many times. And you wonder what we do all day!) I’m just advocating for very small barriers that announce: "Can’t wait to talk to you, but I am busy right now."

Think of it this way: Do you answer your phone every time someone calls? I don’t. Publicists will know (or should!) that I never pick up my phone. I have a business card covering my phone’s screen, so I don’t even see the caller ID. A phone call is someone else deciding when you should be available. It says, Deal with me right now! Email it to me, and I’ll get to it as quickly as I can. I know how to prioritize. I look forward to focusing on the response.

3. We all know "serendipity" is fleeting, at best

"Serendipity" is the counterargument to everything I said above. It’s this catch-all word for a fantasy somebody cooked up (Marissa Mayer, maybe?), in which two coworkers are talking about how to re-brand Old Spice’s body wash, and a third wanders by and overhears them—because there’s no distinction between eavesdropping and "overhearing"—and says, "Well, you know, I just saw a guy on a horse, and it was hilarious." Serendipity! People working together in an unplanned way!


"There’s some evidence that removing physical barriers and bringing people closer to one another does promote casual interactions," explains a Harvard Business Review piece that nicely summarized the research on this subject. "But there’s a roughly equal amount of evidence that because open spaces reduce privacy, they don’t foster informal exchanges and may actually inhibit them. Some studies show that employees in open-plan spaces, knowing that they may be overheard or interrupted, have shorter and more-superficial discussions than they otherwise would."

I could swing my headphones around my head right this minute and hit at least four very smart, talented, hard-working Fast Company staffers. I like and respect them a great deal. But we have our headphones on pretty much all the time—because that’s what our environment demands of us. We like talking to each other, but we have been put into an environment that tries to manufacture that talking, and now we do the opposite. Serendipity is when we’re both listening to Django at the same time. Though we’ll never know.

4. Open-office layouts distance us from our coworkers

At the last magazine I worked for, everyone had offices. We’d pop into each other’s offices, at first to ask a question or work out some problem, and soon, because nobody could hear us, we’d transition into long and personal conversations. Many people there became close, treasured friends, and awesome collaborators.

But out in the open? It’s far harder to get to know coworkers—and that personal connection is important. "Serendipity" isn’t a matter of matched-up ideas. It’s a matter of knowing how another person thinks. That’s the kind of stuff you learn by getting personal, and that’s not something I want to do out in the open.

Not that I’m a private person. Contrary to that introverts-are-the-only-people-affected New York Times piece, I am an extrovert. At a Fast Company retreat, no joke, I tore my ACL while doing a very acrobatic karaoke. Stone-cold sober. But I don’t wander around forcing everyone to look at my vacation photos, so I’m not going to subject them to 20 minutes of a bunch of overheard personal chitchat either. When I had an office here, colleagues popped in regularly; we had fun. I started a little Whiskey Friday gathering, where everyone was invited to come drink and chat. It was great; we killed off bottles with respectable speed. But we haven’t done it since I moved: Not everyone here is on the same schedule, and a Whiskey Friday in the middle of the office is just a gigantic interruption.

It’s the final tragedy, really: I love my work, I love working with others, I love jazz, and, let’s be clear, I love whiskey. These are things I want for all of us. The open-office layout has diminished the value of it all. And the prescription is so tantalizingly simple, yet kept out of reach because...

Hold on, a colleague just knocked on my chair. I’ll finish that thought later.

[Image: Flickr user Tim Samoff]

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  • Katherine Fuller

    A small but nagging, negative byproduct of my office's new open layout (which is universally hated) is the lack of a personalized space. We have no budget for art, so the walls are essentially bare. And because most people have no walls (only a window) and aren't allowed to hang anything on the wall they might sit next to, no one can "nest" in their workspace. While that might seem superficial, crafting an inspirational space is important for someone like me. And for others, it means no big wall charts or extra-large post-its or maps or whatever that they may have previously used to help themselves brainstorm and organize.

    And how's this for interruption: Though I have a content-creation, creative-heavy job that requires a lot of writing, my desk is basically in an open hallway, and its position makes me the de facto receptionist for visitors stepping off of our elevator.

  • This article is a beacon. It should be read Clockwork Orange style to every manager, accountant and business interior design person in America. Bonuses should be handed out to managers and office space planners who can recite it verbatim.

    I would add one more point about offices. You can control the light. Not everyone wants a fluorescent operating theater to work in. Some work better in dim light. Some work better in bright light. I prefer low light. Offices allow you to tailor both the light level and the sound level.

  • I absolutely loathe open spaces. I just moved jobs and my floor has creepy men who always stare at you while passing by. I do research and the idiotic ladies behind,next to me are gossipy and bitchy. They spend the entire day either talking about their personal problem or about how terrible someone is at their work.

  • stevetesterman

    cubicle interruptus - now that you've pointed it out — it's obvious

    ...I now think I quit listening to talk radio on the way home because I have to hear so much bullsh!t at work now!

    SILENCE! I kill you!

    I guess your earphones are the equivalent of a closed door - KNOCK KNOCK KNOCK Jason?

  • stevetesterman

    cubicle interruptus - now that you've pointed it out — it's obvious

    ...I now think I quit listening to talk radio on the way home because I have to hear so much bullsh!t at work now!

    SILENCE! I kill you!

    I guess your earphones are the equivalent of a closed door - KNOCK KNOCK KNOCK Jason?

  • This is the best and most spot-on article I've ever read on the Internet. Ever! I hate wearing earphones all day. Like the author, I just want some peace and quiet so I can work without having to blast Kings of Leon in my ears simply to drown out the constant din around me.

    Whoever came up with the idea of open office spaces should be burned at the cubicle stake.

  • bustaruckus

    No, it isn't. I've worked in office, cubicle, and open space layouts, and open space is by far the worst. You can hear a dozen conversations on all sides of you while trying to concentrate. It's an excuse for executives to save money and boost their own bonuses.

  • bustaruckus

    No it isn't. I've worked in cubicle, office, and open space layouts, and open space layouts are impossible to work in because you can hear a dozen simultaneous conversations while your trying to concentrate.

  • Sal Novin

    As an owner of an autonomic computing and virtual robotics shop, I can tell you that our productivity is off the charts, our revenue is off the charts, and our employee happiness is off the charts. One thing you must consider is that there are office environments, like ours, that is getting it right. My view is that open-office is the advanced-level of work environments. If you have endemic problems in your work environment an open office will not solve these problems and it will undoubtedly exacerbate it. A Formula 1 car can set the best track times, unless you find driving a go-cart around the track challenging. You need to work up to the level of an open office.
    Our entire team is constantly tweaking things like desk arrangements, proximity arrangements, noise, etc., It is a challenge but if we went back to a closed office arrangement, I would have a very disappointed team.
    I'm happy to demonstrate the value to all comers!

  • jone0428

    I half agree with this. I think the most suitable office design is highly dependent on the type of business and the work being done. Ideally, you need to give your employees the responsibility of choosing their most suitable work environment, as they should know what's best for them based on their work habits and what they need to get done that day. So, provide the 'pig troughs', as someone so excellently put it, to foster collaborative work, but also provide small, medium and large sized private rooms for when people recognise that they want to work undisturbed solo, with 2 or 3, or have a large meeting, respectively.

  • jone0428

    I half agree with this. I think the most suitable office design is highly dependent on the type of business and the work being done. Ideally, you need to give your employees the responsibility of choosing their most suitable work environment, as they should know what's best for them based on their work habits and what they need to get done that day. So, provide the 'pig troughs', as someone so excellently put it, to foster collaborative work, but also provide small, medium and large sized private rooms for when people recognise that they want to work undisturbed solo, with 2 or 3, or have a large meeting, respectively.

  • antheaharyoko

    Totally agree with this... Since the company i worked for moved to a new open space office, 2 of my colleagues resigned - citing they were just too tired all the time, and 2 of us (myself included) had stress related breakdowns because we were bombarded by constant information and interruptions by either our bosses or colleagues demanding our inputs, opinions and attention.

    Considering the company i work for is an agency, i don't blame the appeal the agency see from this kind of office because we do work in teams. But once we know our tasks, we need to go to our work stations to actually complete our responsibilities. And just like the experience of the author or this piece, we all work with our earphones on.

  • I do agree with this except for the 4th point. I think if I had my own office I wouldn't know my co-workers as well as I do now. I'm the type who doesn't speak unless spoken to. But I do see the importance of having your own private area to talk, but I don't see how open-spaced offices would distance us from co-workers. There are always other parts of the office where you can have more intimate conversations.

  • I especially like the analysis of what it means to work together toward a common goal and what it doesn't mean.

    Managers should, quite frankly, be aware not just of what their team does but how they do it. It is easy being a manager in an open office because you just suck in the information and can bother whomever you like whenever you like. So managers have a skewed view of the open office. But your team is not a Borg Collective. No human mind works that way.

  • My old job was at a company where NO ONE had an office. The CEO, the finance team, the creative director or head of client service. What did happen is that some people could not deal with working in the town square and would park off in boardrooms for hours at a time, until others complained and they were told to work at their communal Star Bucks desk like everyone else. it worked, though I do think you're right in saying its harder to concentrate and people interrupt each other.

    At my current job I've had my own office for just over a year. If my door is open you can walk in and bug me. But some days, I need to sit down and crank out a load of work in a short space of time. Then if the door is closed and you barge in, I reserve the right to throw my stapler at it.

    The difference also is that the old company was an agency, a feast of ideas. Now I'm in B2B equipment sales and the office door allows me to call customers in peace or crank out the quotes and invoices alone.

  • This is awesome! Thank you for writing this, I just thought I was weird because I don't like the open floor plan. It makes me nervous and I hate wearing headphones all day every day and constantly being interrupted and having to hear the new disgusting sexual thing my coworker is yelling about. I love my coworkers and enjoy talking to them, just not all day every day. And my desk mate and my computers are set up so that we have to stare at each other. All day. Staring at someone or being stared at constantly is unnerving. I'm also an extrovert and love to be around people, but I can't get my work done to the level I'd like because there are people all around me all the time. There is no space to think!

  • Thanks for sharing this perspective Jason. We assume it's what many have been thinking but were afraid to say for fear of being viewed "old fashioned" (not to be confused with "old school"). We're sharing your link and polling the TAB community on this topic since we've been discussing ways to help generations work together in the workplace: