"Students enlisted to tutor others," Paul reports, "work harder to understand the material, recall it more accurately and apply it more effectively."
The result is a phenomenon called the protege effect: students who teach their study material to others perform better on tests than kids learning for the sake of learning.
Realizing that, innovative educators are setting up situation where students can teach young students, the most awesome of which may be happening at the University of Pennsylvania—a "cascading mentoring program" in which college undergrads teach computer science to high schoolers who teach CS to middle schoolers.
Other researchers—who have built a virtual pupil for kids to teach—found that since students are more motivated to learn their material, they study it more consciously—and as they try to parse the information, they discover gaps in their own understanding—a humbling, energizing epiphany familiar to anyone who's tried to teach English to a non-native speaker.
Student tutors feel chagrin when their virtual pupils fail; when the characters succeed, they feel what one expert calls by the Yiddish term nachas. Don’t know that word? I had to learn it myself: "Pride and satisfaction that is derived from someone else’s accomplishment."
[Image: Flickr user Nick Smarto]