How Biochar Will Help Kenya Go Green And Save Money

<a href=Jason Aramburu" />

Re:char is a pioneering company that sells kilns to farmers in Kenya that allow them to convert their farm waste into what's known as biochar, which can then be used for cooking. As an enterprise, Re:char seeks to deliver a "triple bottom line," expanding the uses of sustainable alternatives for energy, providing a cost-effective solution for farmers in an effort to combat poverty, and stemming deforestation in Africa by encouraging use of biochar as cooking fuel instead of cutting down trees for firewood. Jason Aramburu, the CEO of re:char who works in Bungoma, in the Western Province of Kenya, spoke to us about the emerging area of biochar and a grant that re:char just received from the Gates Foundation to develop a system to transform human waste into biochar.

Fast Company: Where did you get the idea for re:char?

Jason Aramburu: I was doing due diligence for a clean energy investor in New York. After the 2008 financial crisis, the investor I was working for was hit hard. He didn't show up for work for a week, when he came back, it was obvious that he was negatively impacted by the crisis. He ultimately decided to slow down his operations. As I thought about what I wanted to do next, I reflected back on an experience I had had in college, I had participated in a program in Panama at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute where I worked on a variety of different projects involving soil and nutrient cycling. I'd heard about biochar there. After the crash, I thought it was time to try something new, and re:char began.

What exactly is biochar?

In the Amazon basin for over 3,000 years indigenous farmers have been making charcoal and burying it in the ground. They did this because it improved the soil's ability to capture and retain nutrients, which led to increased crop yields. The soil is so fertile, that they call these sites terra preta, which means black earth in Portuguese. What the farmers didn't know 3,000 years ago was that biochar was actually making a lasting impact on the soil. Today at the sites where they buried the biochar, it's still in the ground. As a result of how fertile the land is, that biochar-rich land is worth about five times as much as the land without it.

rechar Are a lot of people working with biochar today?

It's still very new. There are just a handful of companies targeting different ends of the supply chain. Some companies are trying to build multimillion-dollar plants to produce biochar. Those have been slow to develop because the cost is very high and the technology is pretty complex. Our focus is more on the small localized level. This is still very much a frontier.

It sounds like biochar could play a role in play in the global energy crisis.

I don't think there's any silver bullet in renewable and sustainable energy. There's never going to be one technology that solves all of our energy challenges. Biochar is unique because it's the only energy source that is actually "carbon negative." Even under the best scenario, solar energy is only carbon neutral, if you fully account for all the emissions associated with producing and distributing solar panels. When you look at the reality of climate science, carbon neutral is not enough. Biochar is carbon negative, which means that every ton of biochar produced represents carbon extracted from the air, which cannot get back into the atmosphere.

How have you built a business around biochar?

In Kenya, we produce and sell a device called a rutuba kiln. In Kiswahili, "rutuba" means soil fertility. The kiln costs us $25-30 to produce and we sell it to a farmer for less than the cost of two bags of fertilizer. Most farmers in a year purchase 2-3 bags of fertilizer and that's typically the largest single purchase that they make. We make the kilns out of repurposed oil barrels in "mobile factories." In places like rural Africa, it's really hard to import and transport finished goods efficiently, so we decided to take a 20-foot shipping container and turn it into a rutuba kiln factory. We outfitted a container with advanced metal fabrication tools in the U.S. and shipped it to Kenya. That container is now our production shop, which allows us to produce kilns locally. This model is scalable. We can deliver factories anywhere in the world that a shipping container can go. We go after 1-2 acre farmers who are farming sugar cane and maize, which means they are earning, on average, $300-600 a year. But much of their production is sold by them directly in the marketplace, which means they are not just farmers but small-business people. They can purchase the kiln outright or they can pay for it over time. The farmer takes the kiln and uses the waste they are producing—things like sugar cane waste, corn cobs, leaves, and stalks—and converts the waste into biochar. Then the farmer can take apply the biochar directly to his field to make it more fertile, or take the biochar and turn it into charcoal briquettes which they can use as fuel to cook food. We find that it only takes the farmer about six months to reap the savings from the briquettes and the increased crop yield necessary to pay for the kiln.

How hard is it to get buy-in from the farmers? I'd imagine many of them would be skeptical.

It's tricky. Especially in Kenya, a lot of these farmers have seen lots of Western ideas come and go. At first we struggled a bit getting farmers on board and getting them to believe that biochar worked. Then we started working with an NGO in the area that is focused on sustainability. They brought us to western Kenya and effectively became our ambassadors and sales team. We've also developed test sites around the area where we can show farmers that biochar works. Now we're setting up a demonstration farm, which will have several different test plots. The farm will allow us to experiment with different kinds of biochar blends. We hope it will become the biochar center for Kenya.

What are some of the new things you are doing?

We just got a grant from the Gates Foundation to test the conversion of human waste into biochar. Sanitation is a big issue in East Africa. So we're working with a company building clean toilets to test converting the output of their toilets into biochar. We already know that this works quite well, it makes a very effective fertilizer. We've already done a lot of the initial testing. We're the only people working in this area right now. It's really a goldmine of feedstock to make biochar. Human waste has the optimal ratio of carbon to nitrogen to grow the crops that humans eat. If you think about it that makes a lot of sense. It's said that early humans discovered agriculture after they realized that certain plants grew well in their own waste.

Note: This interview has been edited for content, clarity, and length.

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David D. Burstein is a young entrepreneur, having completed his first documentary 18 in '08. He is also the Founder & Executive director of the youth voter engagement not for profit, Generation18. His book about the millennial generation will be published by Beacon Press in 2012.

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  • Ruth Nyambweke

    This sounds good. How can i get the rechar equipment from you. My small farm is located in Kitale, Kenya. Not too far from Bungoma. Ruth

  • Sandeep Balaji

    Very interesting what Jason is unto. Luv the spirit that facing a downturn, he decided to be a social entrepreneur, which is not the natural way most people think. Because its about stability and not taking risk when the financial world as you know it is melting under you. Kenya and rest of the world need more and better ideas like this.

    - SB

  • moses wepukhulu

    Dear re:char,
    my name is moses wepukhulu ,working for syngenta E.A ltd as area rep for western based in you think there is an opportunity for me and my clients especially farmers and agro dealers to gain from this venture? my i request the rep for bgm to link up with me on 0721825559 for a better undestanding of this.quite interested.success.moses

  • Erich J. Knight

    The link did not take;
    Guys like Jason will change the world, he and the many engineers without
    borders like Dr. "TLUD" Paul Anderson's boots on the ground efforts have
    a massive cascade effect to the quality of life for subsistence
    farmers. Less fuel to haul, lung healthy wives & children and
    tranformatiom from a substance farmer to a peasant farmer by increased
    73 Soil test;

  • Erich J. Knight

    73 African Soil Test
     The consistent trends of  K, P, Ca, Mg, Cu,
    Fe, Mn & the few reported Ph numbers of 73 different sites should  serve  to convince folks of the efficacy of the work that Jason has undertaken.

    ACON Soil Analysis

    http://desertification.wordpre... like Jason will change the world, he and the many engineers without borders like Dr. "TLUD" Paul Anderson's boots on the ground efforts have a massive cascade effect to the quality of life for subsistence farmers. Less fuel to haul, lung healthy wives & children and tranformatiom from a substance farmer to a peasant farmer by increased yields.

  • kamau john

    wonderful idea that will save the environment and alleviate poverty. Our community based organization is based in lugari district kakamega county and we wish that you share with us more on your activities.


  • Erich J. Knight

    Sec. Clinton Makes a big Announcement with The Global Stove Initiative;

    State Dept. Release;

    100 million clean-burning stoves in kitchens around the world.

    Biochar Work in Nine Developing Countries:http://www.biochar-internation...
    Clean cook stoves are the philanthropic side of a burgeoning thermal conversion Biochar industry

    Big Wig consortiums like Catchlight Energy LLC, a joint venture of Chevron Corp and Weyerhaeuser Co, with Kior ,
    Honeywell has joined SynGest for the
    production of fossil fuel free ammonia
    & char from biomass, and AlipaJet for a tank ready fuel process from bio-oils.
    BP joined GE, Google Ventures, ConocoPhillips, and NRG Energy, in investing in Cool Planet BioFuels for fungible fuels + biochar

    All go to show that main stream corporations are showing much more than
    just interest in Biochar systems.
    My best summation and overview for these carbon conservative pathways is this talk,
     to the EPA directors of north America. Titled;The Establishment of Soil Carbon as the Universal Measure of Sustainability

    The most cited soil scientist
    in the world, Dr. Rattan Lal at OSU, was impressed with this talk,
    commending me on conceptualizing & articulating the concept. Please find the full text & links below.
    and read a full report on the June 22, Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) talk,

    Other large markets for Biochar applications, Not included in the
    CEC talk , are
    current Biochar heavy metal remediation work I instigated with DuPont &
    Oak Ridge National Laboratories for toxic mercury remediation, showing a 95% reduction of Hg moving up the food web,
    and the Japan Biochar Association's work toward radionuclide

    Also as a feed ration for reduced CO2e livestock emissions &
    aquaculture (2X size);

    For more of the bigger picture come to the USBI 2012 Sonoma Biochar Conference;