Fast Company

CrossFit: Where Navy SEALs and Pregnant Soccer Moms Help Each Other Get Ripped

A new rapidly growing, community oriented exercise gym, CrossFit, has developed its own multi-million-dollar slice of the fitness industry on the backs of all-star athletes, elite armed forces, and power moms.

"Oh, F**k!" huffs a tree trunk of a man, whose hunched, sweat-drenched body looks like it was just tossed out of a professional wrestling match. I feel naively sympathetic, since I don't realize it is now my turn with the same workout. At CrossFit gyms, everyone does the same drills, from expectant mothers to Navy SEALs.

During my four-month experiment with the growing exercise brand, I learned that CrossFit proposes that elite athleticism and seemingly impossible workouts can be survived with a little help from supportive peers pushing each other through the pain.

Group workouts pack the most functional movements of Olympic lifting, gymnastics, and calisthenics into a 10-to-20-minute sprint. The routines are slowly creeping their way into the regiments of all-star athletes and armed forces divisions around the world. They've put me in the best shape of my life.

The community spirit of CrossFit seems to organically foster a sense of whole-body wellness. The local nutritionist at my CrossFit gym (DogTown) coordinated a gym-wide diet plan (putting me at my lowest body-fat percentage ever) and a fellow gym member and USC-trained physical therapist casually diagnosed my decade-old shoulder condition (side benefit to the social aspect: CrossFit DogTown owners Dusty Hyland and Liz Arnold also mustered their community together to raise $50,000 for a cancer charity drive, driven by their personal connection to victims of cancer).

Once the cult sensation of a few Santa Cruz, California, enthusiasts, the decision to place daily workouts on the Internet catalyzed its exponential growth, with a quickly expanding community of blogs by nutritionists, physical therapists, and niche styles. Affiliate gym growth went from from 49 worldwide in 2001, to roughly 500 in 2008, finally ballooning to its current size of 2,800, according to a CrossFit spokesman.

As a result, a cottage industry of CrossFit-focused businesses, from premium jump rope manufactures to apparel, have thrived throughout the recession, with at least one multi-million business, Again Faster, growing revenue at over 1,400% in three years.

"There's no question we think CrossFit is going to be bigger," says Matt O'Toole, Chief Marketing Officer at Reebok, which just Inked a 10-year exclusive deal on all official sponsorship, and designed an array of CrossFit-branded apparel.

The Exercises

The heart of CrossFit is the Workout of the Day (WOD), a common workout begun at hourly intervals throughout the day by cohorts of gym members. All exercises are functional in nature, cherry picking movements from gymnastics, Olympic lifting, army obstacle courses, triathlon training, and calisthenics, designed to prepare athletes for whatever real-world obstacles they may encounter, from police pursuits to lifting newborn twins.

Other than an indoor rower, DogTown CrossFit has no traditional machines. "You don't need a lot of fancy tools, that's fluff," argues Navy SEAL Commander Mark Devine, who has witnessed the growing influence of CrossFit workouts on the SEALs' operational preparedness. Compared to body-weight staples like push-ups and pull-ups, traditional gym workouts are "a total waste of time."

At traditional gyms, "A guy will work out for an hour and do nothing functional, nothing that has an analog in basic movements," jokes CrossFit founder, Greg Glassman, "There's nothing that happens on a job site that looks like this," he says while miming a bicep curl.

On a typical day, I would arrive at the gym, eavesdrop on members sharing horror stories or bragging about their experience with the WOD, drop my gym bag in row of cubby holes in the back, and prepare my body for 3 rounds of something like this:

  • 10 pull-ups
  • 10 push-ups
  • Run 1/4 of mile
  • 10 air-squats

That is merely the warmup. Last Tuesday, this was the actual workout (done as quickly as possible):

Carry barbells weighing half of one's body weight 200 yards,

Then 3 rounds of:

  • Jumping on top of a 24" box 25 times
  • 25 Airsquats
  • 25 pull-ups
  • 25 Burpees (push-up to a jumping-jack)

Finally, carry barbells another 200 yards

Weights are deliberately scaled for smaller women and newbie couch potatoes. They perform push-ups with knees on the ground, do pull-ups scaffolded by elastic bands, and lift skinnier Olympic bars.

"It's pushing your specific capacity," says Liz Arnold, who sees a benefit in mixing skill levels. "You're motivating each other, as a community." At DogTown, when members were seen struggling through a difficult workout, everyone would stop what they were doing, encircle them, and cheer them on.

Old, Pregnant, or L.A. SWAT

"CrossFit is what I was always looking for," says Santa Monica SWAT team member, Scott McGee, whose relentless evangelizing is quickly winning over his colleagues, growing from three CrossFitters on his force to 50 in "few" years.

As a result, at their bi-annual physical test, "everyone on the team, including sergeants, has to pass Murph," one of CrossFit's most grueling WODs.

CrossFit, however, bills itself as a movement bringing elite athleticism to any demographic. "Right now, I believe I'm in better shape that I've ever been," says 72-year-old Jacinto Bonilla, the oldest competitor at last weekend's CrossFit Games' Masters division, for +40-year-olds.

"When I run, I don't get as tired," he says, comparing his fitness level to when he was running the New York Marathon in his 40s. Perhaps even more astounding than his age, Bonilla credits CrossFit for helping him recover from cancer radiation, which he received just six months prior to qualifying for the national competition. "I credit CrossFit for my health now."

Below is a video of the women Master's performing toes-to-bar at the 2011 CrossFit Games:

"I think CrossFit can be for everyone," says Val Voboril (who is pictured in the handstand, 9 months pregnant, below). "It made my pregnancy easier," she contends, as the "strength, conditioning, and endurance," helped her deal with the added weight of carrying another human being.

At CrossFit, however, men aren't always the alpha dogs, such as 106-pound Ting Wang, who deadlifts nearly 3x her body weight in the video below (I still can't deadlift double my own weight).

Humble Beginnings On The Internet

Prior to CrossFit.com, Glassman's program was a tiny cult sensation in the lazy beach town of Santa Cruz, Califonia, where he began training clients in a functional workout program. The company's primary revenue stream, licensing entrepreneurs to start CrossFit gyms (for what is now a $3,000 annual fee), had only a few adopters, mainly from Glassman's friends who he says begged him to start an affiliate program.

According to Glassman, the enthusiasm garnered the attention of Venture Capitalists ready to bootstrap his program; then the Silicon Valley bubble burst, investors stopped calling, and he said, "I was left with the nagging suspicion that we could just post our workouts and attract some attention."

So, while he could never find enough people in any particular city to get momentum, the Internet could pull together all the disparate islands of potential clients, "I found a few on the net, hundreds on the net, and then thousands."

Additionally, he says, the new blogging trend allowed recently deputized zealots to write about their experiences and pull in fellow fitness enthusiasts from their network. Today, the Internet is sprawling with CrossFit blogs, some from official affiliates, and others from specialists who post their expertise for free.

"The more you give away for free, the more you thrive," says clinical physical therapist, Kelly Starrett, founder of MobilityWOD.com, a daily video blog on improving range of motion, injury prevention, and flexibility (one of the blogs I now follow daily). Starrett's, whose blog has seen 3.5 million views since he began posting free daily lessons 9 months ago, says that giving away information has boosted both his reputation and personal practice, including an invitation to speak at Google HQ. "Here are the recipes, but you're still going to come to my restaurant," he explains.

In my own experience, the more regular impact of the Internet was Facebook and Twitter updates from DogTown's social media accounts--pictures of strenuous workouts or post-workout group photos.

"Social media is itself a good platform for everyone to keep in touch," says Arnold, who helps run the DogTown Facebook and Twitter accounts, "People like to see themselves, or see their friends and then comment on it; it gets people talking more."

CrossFit Economics

CrossFit is a premium sport--much to the detriment of my bank account. Membership dues are $200 a month--a piggy-bank-smashing five times more expensive than the traditional gyms peppered around my apartment. My already health-packed grocery bill more than doubled, largely due to the swelling volume of protein products overtaking my fridge (most gyms strongly encourage members to abide by the Paleolithic dietary guidelines).

But, what makes my bank account weep also makes CrossFit entrepreneurs sing: Gilson estimates that the average gym owner can rake in $135K a year, with 125 members at $150/month and $90,000 in overhead (owners also make money on merchandise, private lessons, and food supplements).

The equipment suppliers fueling the affiliates are, perhaps, doing best of all. Gilson says he's experienced 1,000% growth through the recession, with $3,000 in revenue in 2006, $2.94 million in 2010, and a projected 4 million in 2011. "If you chart Again Faster's growth, it is in almost exact line to affiliate growth," he says. "CrossFit's amazing in that it's created its own economy."

There's even enough momentum to support smaller niche suppliers, such as RX Jump Ropes, which specializes in helping athletes perform only one of CrossFit's many common moves, a rope jump that passes twice under the feet before landing ("Double Under"). "This was an accidental business," says David Newman, who got caught up in the unexpected upswing of CrossFits's growth thanks to his personal friends who spread word of his product.

Gilson says it remains to be seen whether outsiders can muscle their way into to the close-knit economy. Indeed, every business I spoke with, including the largest industry supplier, Rogue Fitness, were all founded by CrossFitters.

In recognition of the fact, Reebok, the first mainstream fitness brand to break into the sport, has focused most of its marketing on paying homage to the community: The CMO is a Crossfitter himself, Reebok HQ has opened up their own onsite gym with a reported 400 active members (out of 1,200), and produced an emotionally over-the-top commercial, spotlighting CrossFit celebrities:

Grow or Dissipate

The strength of CrossFit's market-oriented approach may also be its biggest challenge. Since workouts and individual culture are largely decided by independently owned gyms, CrossFit can only maintain a level of quality to the extent that trainers buy into the core philosophy and execute smart business practices. Moreover, since Glassman can't patent "functional, high-intensity movements," there's nothing to prevent a Gold's Gym or military division from wholesale adopting CrossFit's basic approach without renumeration or giving credit. Ultimately, the survival of the official brand will depend on Glassman's ability to maintain its community as the exercise program swells.

As for me, I'm taking a break from CrossFit, but plan on returning--I don't want to completely let go of my new six-pack.

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21 Comments

  • David Parmly

    Greg, allow to join the chorus here.  Great article that was obviously written by someone who had done more than merely scratched the surface of CF, as so many writers do i.e. visiting one box, talking to 3 people, seeing the "puke bucket" then writing about it.  So "not CF".  At my company, we subsidize joining gyms in town but my condition for joining the CF affiliate where I train is that one must give it 90 days.  I think it takes that long to "get it".

    I have seen CF change my life (Age 51, ex military, old injuries), as well as that of other friends whom I have recommended it, and even my wife who went from rock-ribbed skeptic to true believer in about...90 days!  I appreciate the respect for our sport that your article showed.  Bravo Zulu!

  • Bernie Bellew

    There is no holy grail when it comes to fitness. We have a Crossfit gym here in Vero Beach, Florida. $150 a month not counting the special" classes. Not exactly a fitness option for the majority. People have becoming fit prior to Crossfit, and will become fit after the fad ends. The methodology is not new, only the marketing. 

  • Ike Renner

    David Parmly makes good points.  Also, the vast majority of Crossfit's information is freely available online.  You can participate in their forums free, watch videos free, get nutritional info free, and take or leave as much of their workouts as you wish.  They will show you how to scale them to your abilities and how to avoid common mistakes.

    Before joining the local CF near me, I would take modified WODs to my local YMCA and hit it as hard as I could.  I'd get strange looks from those who merely go there to read books while wasting time on those silly treadmills and elliptical.  I had amazing results on my own.  It does not replace my membership and pales in comparison, but was still 10x better than buying some p90x/insanity/zumba videos to waste my time and gather dust

  • David Parmly

    Bernie,

    Good point, Bernie.  There are no "simple answers" to something as individualistic as "fitness".   By your definition, though, Isaac Newton didn't discover anything.  He merely marketed what was already known. And that is a fact. In fact, you make the point many in the CF community make; People were becoming fit long before CF came along.  Unfortunately, the functional fitness they derived from daily activity has been removed from our typical westernized lives.  Therefore, we must create an environment in which such activities take place.  And it doesn't have to be in a gym with a monthly fee.  The "3d Fittest male on the planet" (based on the 2011 CF Games) is a 21-year old college student who trains in his own garage.  I spent 3 years doing modified CF WODs in our little company gym, using freely obtained videos and suggested workouts I gleaned from the internet.  The PRINCIPLES CF advocates are NOT applicable only in a CF box.

    BTW, consider the significantly higher risk involved with the movements of the free-flying weights in a CF gym, as compared to the risk-averse cable machines and cardio machines at the typical gym, then add in the one-on-one coaching that you get for your money (admittedly in a group), plus the diet advice, plus the community support and accountability...it ends up being a good value, even if it is not "cheap".

  • MyWeightCare

    Greg great writing on giving outsiders to crossfit an inside glimpse.  We would love to link to your article from our site, with your blessing of course.  www.myweightcare.com  Let us know.

  • Annie Chmielewski

    I train at Khalipa's box and the community is great and the instruction is quality. It's no different than any other trainer or gym, you want to train correctly and with someone who knows what they are doing. I checked it out for a week first, saw for myself, talked to long time members, checked yelp reviews and decided to join...great choice!

  • Ben Joven

    CrossFit's cool and definitely a growing trend in fitness...I just joined a rock climbing gym so I'm trying something totally new, and working a whole new set of muscle groups.

    Just curious, you said you were at your lowest body fat ever, are you single digit?

  • Megan Sterritt

    On Sunday, August 28, 2011, over 280 of the nation’s top athletes will gather in a day-long battle, testing their physical and mental toughness for Summer Crush Games, Miami’s largest Crossfit Competition, taking place at The Magic City Casino.  Competing in the Female RX division are three of the top four women from 2011 Crossfit Games SE Regionals. Also registered is Jamie Gold, who finished 2nd in the CE Regionals. The Men's RX division includes four of the top eight males from SE Regionals. Chase Daniels (16th in the World) and Jared Davis (22nd in the World,) as well as Jeremy Thiel (2008, 3rd place in the World) and Lance Cantu are also slated to compete. Top teams like Hardcore (10th in the World), Brick (6th in the World,) and Team Vida (21st in the World) will be fighting some other newcomers for Team Prizes and Top Team title.  www.summercrushgames.com

  • Liana Miller

    Greg, Fight Gone Bad grew out of the idea that people are already doing something that they are passionate about.  Why not dedicate a day to raise money (and awareness) for causes they care about.   Individuals and teams compete and with Sportsgrants powering the fundraising engine (and this year, the teams really rallying around the families of the Navy SEALS lost) - it's just exploded.  (You can see this on Facebook (Fight Gone Bad 6 communities and Sportsgrants).  They expect that they'll be well over 10,000 CrossFitters participating by September 17. 

  • David Victor

    This is a great article. I have enjoyed watching the sport of CrossFit grow tremendously including the off-shoot brands and culture with it. 

    Fashletics (www.fashletics.com) is one of those brands much like Again Faster that is celebrating the crossfit community and adding value with their kettle bell necklaces, LIVE LOVE LIFT shirts, featured "fashletes" etc. Larger brands like Reebok have given Crossfit credibility. 

    It's a great sport and has gotten me in the best shape of my life. And it's fun and inclusive!

  • Liana Miller

    The commitment of this community is really intense and the economics of their model is being applied to causes.  I was first introduced to the CrossFit community by Sportsgrants (disclosure: client) and their annual Fight Gone Bad fundraising event. But, my client bias aside, what they do each year is incredible.  This year, they have already signed up more than 6,000 athletes in nearly 750 affiliate centers (around the world) to fund college education for the children of the soldiers killed in Afghanistan.  Their passion to come together and support what's important to the community is admirable.    

  • Gregory Ferenstein

    great! i can't quite explain the link between community-style workouts and charity, but there's gotta be some hidden variable...would be very interested in learning what it is.

  • Sean Pastuch

      - CrossFit does not stress speed, repetitions, or volume over proper ergonomics.  You are misinformed.  The stress is on functional, healthy movement.  Evidence to that point is that all members must first go through a "foundations", or "elements" program in which they learn proper form and gradually incresae intensity to reach that of a typical workout.  It's unfortunate that your friends were "laid up after pushing too hard", this is certainly an unfortunate occurrence for them, but is not typical of a CrossFit first timer. 

    Just like choosing Doctors, Lawyers, and teachers, there is much variability amongst personal trainers and CrossFit trainers.  Much of the responsibility lies with the trainer to ensure a safe, effective, and fun workout, but some of the responsibility also falls on the client to govern him or herself.

    Is the CSCS who had his players benching at USC when Stafon Johnson dropped a barbell on his throat teaching unsafe skills because a player got hurt?  It's unlikely, and this is just one very public example of where generalizations can be, but shouldn't be made.

  • steph baker

    Good coaching at Crossfit can serve every size and shape. While the young and shapely athletes are doing more than I at the "Level 1" group, my "Foundations" coaches address my creaky knees, sore back and weak pushups by teaching good form, emphasizing stretching and encouraging regular attendance. I, like all members, am recording my daily WODs and seeing steps toward my fighting weight, getting stronger and becoming the athlete I once was. The key: attendance!

    Cost-wise, I find the $200/mo fees challenging, but personal or group training would be considerably more. I appreciate the one hour in my day where I am challenged, get to concentrate on my movements and have my workout predetermined.

  • M Chewy

    By stressing speed, repetitions, and volume over form and proper ergonomics the Crossfit model may be positive, but not for beginners. I can say anecdotally I have had a number of friends laid up after pushing too hard.  I assume the coaching is more "Go faster!" motivation and not "Back straighter!" teaching.  Again, just my experience, but be mindful. 

  • dclowes

    CrossFit coaching stresses form and safety.  I showed up at age 48 way out of shape, with "bad knees" and told the coach I couldn't do squats, box jumps, or run.  I didn't want to learn how; I just knew I couldn't.  I turn 50 next month, am running my second half marathon on my birthday, squat about 190 lbs. and deadlift 210.  I haven't hurt myself at CF yet, and everything I do is at my pace and skill level.  Am I pushed?  Yes, that's why I go.  Am I pushed over proper form?  Never.  I have never heard "go faster!" out loud ... but I've heard plenty of, "knees wider," "back straighter," and "you can do it!"  "Go faster" is what we hear IN OUR HEADS... it's up to the athlete, not just the coach, to determine the appropriate weight, speed, and duration.

  • Gregory Ferenstein

    You're right to worry about the range of quality at CrossFit gyms. I've seen some dangerous coaching, though it was was the exception in my experience. How do they maintain high quality with such a large brand?

  • Patton

    Great article Greg and excellent job of explaining a movement that can be hard to communicate.  I think you can expect a lot more from crossfit and the crossfit community.  The fitness industry was ready for this kind of movement.  The traditional fitness model is one that has some serious flaws and room for major improvement.  There is a demand for people to be challenged, connected and accountable.