The biggest cities don't need brands--New York, London and Paris all have their own. But you'd probably be hard pressed to recall them; the names alone are richly evocative by themselves. They're bigger than any post-hoc logo could ever be.
But consider Melbourne: Even if it's locally known to be cosmopolitan and livable, and even if city planners are boldly reinventing their city, through architecture, it's still overshadowed by Sydney (at best). So the city decided to rebrand itself, to announce its ambitions to play on a bigger stage. Total cost: Just under US$200,000.
The identity, designed by branding giant Landor, was meant to express the vibrancy and diversity of a world city, and it coincides with the city's new four-year development plan: